Appendix 1: Literature

Background information and sample literature survey

Includes historical and conceptual studies, as well attempts of establishing practical guides in Europe, Norh America and Australia.

Klauder, C.Z. and Wise, H.C. (1929), “College Architecture in America”, Charles Scribner´s Sons, New York

This is considered to be the pioneer comprehensive book dealing specifically with the fundamental aspects of college architecture and planning. It was a joint endeavor of the Association of American Colleges and the Carnegie Corporation, including detailed analysis of large institutions, but discussing fundamental principles also applicable to small colleges.

Larson, J.F. and Palmer, A.M. (1933), “Architectural planning of the American college”, McGraw-Hill Book Comp., New York

This book is an effort to give an account of early 20th century developments in college architecture with special reference to the liberal arts college. It was commissioned by the Association of American Colleges and is the result of practical experience in designing college buildings and in giving advice and counsel on issues in the administration and planning of the American College.

Kanvinde, A. and Miller, H. J. (1969). “Campus design in India – experience of a developing nation”, Printed by Jostens/American Yearbook Co., Topeka, Kansas, USA

This book was written by experienced architects with special reference to university developments in India in the 60´s. It was commissioned by the US Agency for International Development and considers a brief survey of campus built in India (and elsewhere), including a series of Universities (Aligarh Luslim, Banaras Hindu, Delhi), Indian Institutes of Technologies (Kharagpur, Madras, Kanpur,Delhi) and universities of agricultural sciences (Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Punjab, Andhara Pradeshn, Bangalore). It describes very initial “campus” developments in India, in the form of “Budhist learning centers”, namely in Taxila (6th Century BC and existing until 2nd Century AD, with a serious of learning centres dispersed throughout the city), in Nalanda (3rd Century BC and existing until 12th Century AD, heavily populated with over 3000 monks and a greater number of students, living together in a cluster of monasteries and collective spaces around a stupa, with a quality, scale and identity not unlike the successful campus of today) and Ajanta (2nd Century BC and existing until 2nd Century AD, isolated from worldly distractions to promote serenity, this campus was built around a semi-circular scarp of high rocks, with an utter simplicity).

Turner, P. V. (1984), “Campus – An American planning tradition”, MIT Press, Cambridge

Considers a throughout historical survey of the American Campus, following the founding ideas of the medieval British universities. It includes an in-depth analysis of the fundamental characteristics that distinguish American campus, as driven by the desire to create an ideal community and often considered to be a vehicle for expressing the utopian social visions of the American imagination. It has been considered throughout the technical literature over the last decades as the most significant review and historical analysis of the evolution of the American Campus until the mid 80s.

Dober, R. P. (1983), “Campus Planning”, Reinhold Book Corporation, New York

Dober, R. P. (1992), “Campus Design”, J. Wiley & Sons, New York

Dober, R. P. (1996), “Campus Architecture – building in the groves of architecture”, McGraw-Hill, New York

Dober, R. P. (2000), “Campus Landscape – functions, forms, features”, J. Wiley & Sons, New York

A sequence of four practical guides towards campus design and architecture. Campus Planning (1983) attempts to establish a base of departure for university planning and design, including three sections. The first considers campus planning through historical examples about the evolution of university campus. The second breaks down the campus into its constituent physical parts and describes each in functional and aesthetic terms. The third discusses the steps in preparing campus planning. It has been used as practical guide for campus planning and design.

Campus Design (1992) considers a survey of procedures related with the design of university campus. It includes the fundamental characteristics of American campus.

Campus Architecture (1996) describes and documents campus architecture, based on the unique American experience of building and maintaining a tradition on campus excellence. It contains examples and references gathered during many years of professional experience and practice.

Campus Landscape (2000) provides information, ideas, and instruction about planning and designing the green environment that situates, serves and symbolizes higher education.

In 2005, Richard Dober published “Campus heritage” (SCUP, Soc. For college and Universty Planning, Ann Arbor), a brief monograph offering ideas, insights and information about campus heritage.

Merlin, P. (1995), “L`urbanisme universitaire á l´etranger et en France”, Presses de L´école Nationale des Ponte et Chaussées, Paris

Considers a survey of higher education organization and spatial policy in Britain, the Netherlands, Sweden, Spain, Belgium (Louvain-la-Neuve), America and, then, builds on the French experience to argue in favor of the need to “open” universities to the urban environment and beyond the pattern typical of the 60´s in terms of closed campus in the peripheries of cities. It includes a detailed analysis of the evolution of French university campus, with an analysis of their diversity, based on the analysis of the campus of Lyon, Aix, Orleans-La-source, Avignon.

Coppola Pignatelli, P. and  Mandolesi, D. (1997), “Lárchitettura delle universitá”, CDP, Roma

Considers a critical overview of the architecture of university campus, with emphasis on Europe and Italy.

Gaines, T. A. (1991), “The campus as a work of art”, Praeger, New York.

Argues that the campus should influence emotions through “works of art” and a true “cultural ambience”. It reviews and criticizes a number of American campus in association with the cultural impact they tend to produce.

Edwards, B. (2000), “University Architecture”, Spon Press, London

Book documents the evolution of the university campus as a discrete social, cultural and architectural entity. The author argues that the discourse on the built environment of the university campus now needs to address explicitly the relationship between the “places” provided on-campus and the quality of the student learning experience. Extolling the virtue of the university campus, and the spaces within it, as an active agent in the learning process, the author says university architecture has a higher mission compared with other architecture, and gives: “the design of buildings a cutting edge to which few other areas of architecture aspire. It is the fashioning of a dialogue through bricks and mortar, or more likely steel and glass, with intellectual mission in the broadest sense. Universities have the almost unique challenge of relating the built fabric to academic discourse … the university environment is part of the learning experience and buildings need to be silent teachers.”

Elliott, P. (1994), The urban campus: educating the new majority for the new century. Phoenix, AZ: American Council on Education/The Oryx Press.

The author and president (and professor of education) at The University of Akron discusses how major changes in society have created significant implications for the delivery of higher education. The seven chapters of the book explore the development and growth of urban campuses; what an urban campus is and how it works within the community; who makes up the “New Majority” of students; the urban faculty, their challenges and successes; the frustrations and misconceptions related to urban campuses; the ways in which urban colleges and universities play a key role in moving society forward; and the dynamic role urban campuses can play in preparing students for a globally competitive and technologically complex twenty-first century.

Thomas, G.E. and Brownlee, D. B. (2000), “Building America´s first university – An historical and architectural guide to The University of Pennsylvania”, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia

Book considers a throughout historical survey of the physical campus of The University of Pennsylvania, following the founding ideas of Benjamin Franklin. It includes an in-depth historical and architectural analysis of the campus and its various constitutes, including detailed descriptions of every single building. It is a full historical guide of the Penn campus.

Chapman, M. P. (2006), “American Places – in search of the twenty-first century campus”, American Council on Education, Praeger

Follows Paul Turner (1984) book and provides a brief history of the American Campus, but oriented towards the planning of future campus. It considers main implications for campus design in association with information flows in the cyberspace, sustainability issues, the civic metaphor, and the idea of entrepreneurial campus.

Ellsworth, E (2005), “Places of learning – media, architecture, pedagogy”, Routledge, London.

Considers a conceptual analysis about the way “places” outside of schools provoke us to think and reshape the activities of education.

Guckert, D., ed. (2002), “From concept to commissioning – planning, design, and construction of campus facilities”. APPA (The Ass. Of Higher Education Facilities Officers), Alexandria, VA.

Includes eleven different papers on opportunities and challenges for campus planning and commissioning.

Horowitz, H. (1987), “Campus Life”, Afred Knopf Publ., New York

Provides an in-depth historical analysis of the undergraduate cultures from the end of the eighteenth century to the present. It focus on the evolution of human and social aspects of college life, discussing experiences in many American university campus. It follows the experience of the author in the discussion of women’s colleges, as published in Alma Matter (1980) and considers the way students created systems of meaning and codes of behavior. The analysis considers how the competing student subcultures of the past have been passed down to successive generations and continue to shape the ways in which students work and play in the American college.

Gumprecht, B. (2008), “The American College Town”, University of Massachusetts Press

Provides an historical analysis of the characteristics of the American university Campus, based on the experience of the author, as student and researcher, through many universities in America. It focus on the human and social impact of experiencing college campus and towns, with 8 thematic chapters, each focusing on a single college town as an example, ranging from Oregon to Oklahoma and including Cambridge (Massachusetts), Berkeley (California) and Claremont (California). It considers main implications for campus design.

ADP (2007), “Education and Contextualism”, Black Dog Publ., London

It reports a number of projects developed in England, with emphasis on the Oxford region, and with a special reference to the importance of the context of enquiry in the particular question of knowledge infrastructures, either at a university or school levels.

Sharpe, M.E. (2005), “The University as urban developer: case studies and analysis”, Lincoln Int. of Land Policy., Cambridge, MA.

This book considers a survey of higher education policies and related spatial policies in North America, linking the fields of urban development and higher education strategy and policy.

Wiewel, W. and Perry, D.C. (2008), “Global Universities and Urban Development – Case studies and anaysis”, Lincoln Int. of Land Policy., Cambridge, MA.

Linking the fields of urban development and higher education planning, this book considers a survey of higher education policies and related spatial policies in thirteen countries, including Germany, Korea, Scotland, Japan, Portugal, Mexico and South Africa. It builds on the American experience, as published in 2005 (see “The University as Urban developer: case studies and analysis”) to argue in favor of the university as an “urban institution”, in terms of its institutional engagement in reciprocal cultural, social, economic and political relationships.

Rodin, J. (2007), “The University and urban revival – out of the ivory tower and into the streets”, Black Dog Publ., London

It describes and discusses the role of the University of Pennsylvania over a period of more than ten years in urban revival, with descriptions relevant to university and urban policy issues.

Other relevant literature and sample journal publications:

Saarinen, E. (1960), “Campus planning, the unique world of the university”. Architectural Record 128, pp. 123-130.

Architecture that transforms a campus, Architectural Record 137 (1965), p. 157.

Whisnant, D. (1971), ‘The university as a space and the future of the university’. The Journal of Higher Education, 42, 85-102.

Brand, S. (1995), How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re Built, Penguin.

Hickman, W. (1965), ‘Campus construction for academic survival‘. Journal of Higher Education, 36, 322-30.

Crook, J. (1990), ‘The architectural image‘. In F. Thompson (ed.), The University of London and the world of learning, 1836-1986. London: The Hambledon Press.

Robinson, S. (1999), ‘Maximising the use and quality of teaching space‘. Perspectives: policy and practice in higher education 3, 10-15.

Muthesius, S. (2000), “The Postwar University: utopianist campus and college”, Yale Univ. Press, London

Jamieson, P., Fisher, K., Gilding, T., Taylor, P. & Trevitt, A. C. F. (2000). Place and space in the design of new learning environments. Higher Education Research and Development, 19, 221–236.

Clark, H. (2002), Building education: the role of the physical environment in enhancing teaching and research. London: Institute of Education, University of London.

Jamieson, P. (2003), ‘Designing more effective on-campus teaching and learning spaces: a role for academic developers‘. International Journal for Academic Development, 8, 119-33.

Mitchell, W. (2003), ‘Designing the learning space’. Campus technology, http://www.campustechnology/article.aspx?aid=39465.

Ghanimeh, A.A.A., Alshboul, A.A., Sharaf, A. F., and Ghazalah, S.A. (2004), “Universities as Urban and Architecture spread stimulators in Developing Countries: The Case of Jordan”, private communication.

Kenney, D. R., Dumont, R. and Kenney, G. (2005), “Mission and Place: Strengthening Learning and Community Through Campus Design”, American Council on Education, Praeger Series on Higher Education, Connecticut.

Hashimshony, R. and Haina, J. (2006), “Designing the University of the Future”, Planning for Higher Education, Jan,-Marc., pp.5-19

Yanni, C. (2006), ‘Why all campuses need public places’. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 52, B21.

Malmberg, A., & Maskell, P. (2006). Localized Learning Revisited. Growth and Change, 37(1), 1-18.

Temple, P. and Barnett, R. (2007), ‘Higher education space: future directions‘. Planning for Higher Education, 36

Porter, L., & Barber, A. (2007). Planning the cultural quarter in Birmingham‘s Eastside. European Planning Studies, 15(10), 1327 – 1348.

Van de Klundert, M. J. C. A. and W. Van Winden (2008), “Creating Environments for Working in a Knowledge Economy: Promoting Knowledge Diffusion through Area Based Development”, paper presented at Corporations and Cities: Envisioning Corporate Real Estate in the Urban Future, Brussels, 26 May

Asheim, B. (2009). Guest Editorial: Introduction to the creative class in European city regions. Economic Geography,  85(4), 355-362.

Chang, R.L. et al. (2009), “Places for learning engineering: A preliminary report on informal learning spaces”, proceedings of the Research in Engineering Education Symposium 2009, Palm Cove, QLD, The University of Melbourne, Australia.

Mahgoub, Y (2009), “SOCIO-CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY OF FUTURE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS: The case of the New Kuwait University Campus”, OPEN HOUSE INTERNATIONAL – Shaping the Future of Learning Environments: Emerging Paradigms and Best Practices 2009, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp. 68-74.

Salama, A.M. (2009),”DESIGN INTENTIONS AND USERS RESPONSES: Assessing Outdoor Spaces of Qatar University Campus”, OPEN HOUSE INTERNATIONAL – Shaping the Future of Learning Environments: Emerging Paradigms and Best Practices 2009, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp. 82-93.

W. van Winden et al. (2011), Creating knowledge locations in cities: innovation and integration challenges, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.


Please look at the following sections of this working paper:


Introduction: goal and approach

Context and background

Implementation and field research

Work proposal

Appendix 1: background information and sample literature survey (This page)

Appendix 2: Preliminary list of cities and institutions for field research